The mineral enargite is frequently found with other copper sulfide ores, and the reduction of this mineral would provide arsenic as well as copper. Find the smallest whole number ratio by dividing the number of moles of each element by the number of moles for the element present in the smallest molar amount. This experiment illustrates one way in which this might be done using a form of colourimetry in which. The copper ore production process operation as defined in section 3. Copper ore does not contain pure copper, but either a coppersulphuriron compound chalcopyrite or a. Metallurgically from ores, where the chemical compound of copper with oxygen, sulphur or other elements occurs, copper is produced. Metallurgy depends on the separation of a metal compound from its ore and.
Methods have evolved and vary with country depending on the ore source. Some of these slags can contain high concentrations of heavy metals, particularly arsenic, cadmium, and lead, leading to their classification as hazardous wastes. In this equilibration process, oxygen associated with copper compounds. Us5711922a preferential hydrometallurgical conversion of. You may find specifications and standards that are not relevant to your area. Beryllium copper 2 percent be is an unusual copper alloy in that it can be hardened by heat treatment. Either way, read lightly or deeply, the book is wonderful. Copper ores are found in various parts of the world. It is a transition metal in the middle of the periodic table. To obtain copper, you have to find compounds which contain copper and remove the other elements present to leave the copper on its. There are several ores of copper but more common are sulphide ores as copper pyrite cufes2, along with iron and sulphur other contents are silicates of.
Sphalerite zinc blende, a mineral of zinc sulfide, is the most common zinc ore. Cuperic chloride cucl 2, another copper compound, is used to fix dyes to fabrics. Many ores contain relatively low concentrations of the desired metal. This article presented the behavior of ores containing black copper under acid. Pdf further evidence for bronze age production of copper. Recovery of copper from oxide copper ore by flotation and leaching kiraz, emirhan m. The solution potential was modified by adding agents, and five leaching. An ore is any rock from which a metal may be extracted. Further evidence for bronze age production of copper from ores in the lavrion ore district, attica, greece. Copper also forms an important series of alloys with aluminum, called aluminum bronzes. There are several copper ores, but they all fall into two main categories.
For each compound, a formal oxidation number for copper is given, but the usefulness of this number is limited for pblock elements in particular. Based upon that oxidation number, an electronic configuration is also given but note that for more exotic compounds you should view this as a guide only. Note t hat some of these oxidised copper ores contain arsenic. Extracting iron and copper obtaining and using metals. Discussion of the hardware required for smeltingfurnaces, crucibles. The conversion of copper consists of a series of physical and electrochemical processes. Copper ores the main copper sulphide minerals are chalcopyrite cufes2 chalcocite cu2s, covellite cus, bornite cu5fes4, tetrahedrite cu,fe12sb4s and enargite cu3ass4. Learn more about the extracting metals only on byjus app. If in doubt, or in case very precise data is required, we recommend our readers to contact the local building construction.
Ca2196981c hydrometallurgical conversion of zinc sulfide. Some c opper ores may contain only small amounts of copper. Copper ii oxide can be reduced by reaction with carbon. Suppose you are working in the chemistry laboratory of a mining company that has discovered a new source of tungsten ore containing about 5% ws 2 in a granite matrix granite is a complex aluminosilicate mineral.
H2o in a conversion solution having a high concentration of h2so4, the improvement comprises. Figure 4 shows the stages used in the extraction of copper from this ore. Copper later played an important role in the advent of electricity and today is still among our most valued materials. The complete classification of minerals geology in. Before you get too bogged down in the extraction of copper, make sure that you need it for whatever syllabus you are using.
Most copper ores contain only a small percentage of copper metal bound up within valuable ore minerals, with the remainder of the ore being unwanted rock or gangue minerals, typically silicate minerals or oxide minerals for which there is often no value. Copper extraction refers to the methods used to obtain copper from its ores. The copper ores are far more abundant than native copper, and are the main source of copper today. Copper is now extracted from ores containing a low percentage of copper compounds. Native copper was the only source of copper until the turn of the century, when extraction methods were improved. The symbol for copper is cu, which comes from the latin word cuprum, which, in turn, came from the latin word for. Ah, and then theres bunny, which contains perhaps a tongueincheek answer for my dogfocused wanderlust. Unusually for elements in this area of the periodic table, bismuth compounds are of low. Why is copper extracted from ores containing a low. Even though, native copper is sometimes mined on its own for the copper content. Copper extraction from black copper ores through modification of.
Copper is extracted from copper ore by a series of chemical, physical, and electrochemical processes. This article presented the behavior of ores containing black copper under acid leaching. Pure copper metal is generally produced from a multistage process, beginning with the mining and concentrating of lowgrade ores containing copper sulfide minerals, and followed by smelting and electrolytic refining to produce a pure copper cathode. Before the copper products usage it has to pa ss through a number of stages. Copper is a redorange metal that darkens to a brown color as it is exposed to air. Copper simple english wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. All the ores are minerals but all minerals cannot be ores. Rocks containing copper compounds such as copper carbonate are called copper ore. Copper compounds are frequently used for colouring. Beneficiation of copper ores is done almost exclusively by selective froth flotation. The only similarity the two have is the fact that both compounds contain copper, which is why both have copper in their respective names. The largest source of copper is from porphyry ore deposits in which one or a combination of. The copper book for architecture, is distributed in many countries.
Following is a list of minerals that serve as copper ores in the copper mining process. These molecules usually have a sulfur atom at one end and a hydrophobic hydrocarbon. Copper ores include copper ii oxide and copper ii sulfide. H 2 o in a conversion solution having a high concentration of h 2 s 4. Copper sulfate compounds are used to prevent fungus and algae growth in standing water supplies such as ponds and fountains. Due to the pigmenting effect of copper, chalcanthite, linarite and cyanotrichite are a deep azure. Many copper ores contain only 2% of copper compounds.
Long after the bronze age passed into the iron age, copper remained the metal second in use and importance to. In nature, copper in its pure metal form occurs very often. You can use a variety of different processes to separate the copper from the waste. Copper slag is essentially a ferrous silicate whose range of chemical compositions is shown in table 7. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. In a hydrometallurgical process for converting zinc sulfide in an ore containing zinc sulfide, the zinc sulfide being chemically converted at elevated temperatures to znso4. As copper says, you cant force things like that, fred. In some cases, tailings have been retreated to recover lost value as the technology for recovering copper has improved. Ores usually contain a compound of the metal, a mineral, together with waste material. Typically, copper ores contain only 4 percent copper, so the vast majority is waste. What are the names of compounds in which copper is found.
Usage of copper compounds also dates back to before 4000 bc. Copper doesnt make that sort of fantastic life seem effortless or easy, but it does make it seem worthwhile. To decide whether an ore is worth mining it is necessary to find out how much of the useful mineral it contains, and how much is waste. Engineering metals and their alloys macmillan 1949.
Azurite, malachite, and chrysocolla are a few examples of oxides ores. Hydrated copper sulfate cuso 4 h 2 o, also known as blue vitriol, is the best known copper compound. When recycled, it can pass through some stages over and over again. Study 18 chemistry past paper flashcards from megan f. Properties of copper ores the problem minerals from which copper can be extracted to make money are called copper ores.
Ores can be classed as high grade or low grade depending on the percentage of copper compounds e. If youre running a copper mine, most of the ore you start with the material you dig out of the ground is anything but copper. List of copper compounds, common compounds of copper cu, formula, molecular weight. The method used to extract copper from its ores depends on the nature of. The ore that contains both iron and copper is careers360. Why is copper extracted from ores containing a low percentage of copper compounds. This page looks at the extraction of copper from its ores, its purification by electrolysis, and some of its uses. Some copper ores may contain only small amounts of copper. Extracting iron and copper obtaining and using metals edexcel. Copper sulphate for example was an especially important compound in early times. In addition to their many uses in agriculture and biology, copper salts have an astonishing variety of industrial uses, chiefly of a specialised nature, and there is hardly an industry which does not have some small use for them.
Project development and operations, second edition, brings together all the technical aspects relevant to modern gold ore processing, offering a practical perspective that is vital to the successful and responsible development, operation, and closure of any gold ore processing operation. Additional processes are sometimes required to improve the mechanical properties of the metal or increase its purity. Gold has almost always traced of silver in its natural mineral form, and it can also contain traces of copper and iron. Copper is an element so it cannot be made from other chemicals. Methods have evolved and vary with country depending on the ore source, local environmental regulations, and other factors. These are called low grade ores and have less than 1% copper but they are still used because copper is so valuable. In one ore, the main compound is copper carbonate cuco 3. Colourimetric determination of copper ore resource rsc. Coppers atomic symbol cu is derived from the latin term cuprum meaning metal of cyprus. The remainder of primary production comes from ores in which copper is present as silicates, sulfates, carbonates and oxides, which have been formed by the weathering and oxidation of sulfide minerals. Copper is usually found in nature in association with sulfur. You have been asked to outline an economical procedure for isolating ws 2 from the ore and then converting it to elemental tungsten in as few steps as possible. A hydrometallurgical process for converting zinc sulfide in an ore containing zinc sulfide, said zinc sulfide being chemically converted at elevated temperatures to znso 4.